How Can Optimizing JavaScript Execution Help Improve Interaction to Next Paint (INP) Scores, and What Specific Strategies Should I Employ?


Optimizing JavaScript execution can significantly enhance Interaction to Next Paint (INP) scores by reducing delays and improving the browser's ability to respond quickly to user interactions. Key strategies include code splitting, using asynchronous loading, debouncing and throttling event listeners, optimizing event handlers, minimizing long JavaScript tasks, and leveraging browser APIs for efficient rendering.

Code Splitting

Code splitting involves breaking down JavaScript bundles into smaller chunks that can load asynchronously. This reduces the initial load time and ensures that critical functionality loads first.

Example: Utilize Webpack's dynamic imports to split code:

<script type="module">
    .then(module => {

For more details, refer to Webpack Code Splitting Guide.

Asynchronous Loading

Loading non-critical JavaScript asynchronously can prevent render-blocking. Use the <script async> attribute for scripts that do not rely on other scripts.


<script async src="script.js"></script>

Learn more from the MDN Web Docs: <script>: The Script element.

Debouncing and Throttling Event Listeners

Debouncing and throttling control the rate at which function executions occur, reducing performance overhead for frequently fired events like scrolling.

Example: Debouncing a function:

function debounce(fn, delay) {
  let timer;
  return function() {
    timer = setTimeout(() => fn.apply(this, arguments), delay);

Example: Throttling a function:

function throttle(fn, limit) {
  let inThrottle;
  return function() {
    if (!inThrottle) {
      fn.apply(this, arguments);
      inThrottle = true;
      setTimeout(() => inThrottle = false, limit);

Refer to CSS Tricks: Debouncing and Throttling Explained for an in-depth explanation.

Optimizing Event Handlers

Optimizing event handlers ensures that the functions triggered by user interactions are efficient and quick, reducing their impact on INP.


  • Use passive event listeners ({ passive: true }) to inform the browser that the event listener will not call preventDefault().
  • Minimize DOM manipulation within event handlers.
  • Leverage requestAnimationFrame for visual updates.

For a comprehensive guide, check Google Developers: Passive Event Listeners.

Minimize Long JavaScript Tasks

Long JavaScript tasks can block the main thread, delaying user interactions. Break down long tasks into smaller, asynchronous parts using constructs like setTimeout, setImmediate, or requestIdleCallback.


function longTask() {
  setTimeout(() => {
    // Part of the task
  }, 0);

Learn more from Break Up Long Tasks.

Leveraging Browser APIs

Modern browser APIs like IntersectionObserver and requestAnimationFrame can optimize rendering and improve performance by allowing more efficient handling of resource-intensive tasks.

Example: Using IntersectionObserver for lazy-loading images:

const observer = new IntersectionObserver((entries, observer) => {
  entries.forEach(entry => {
    if (entry.isIntersecting) {
      const img =;
      img.src = img.getAttribute('data-src');

document.querySelectorAll('img[data-src]').forEach(img => {

Explore MDN Web Docs: Intersection Observer API for more details.


Optimizing JavaScript execution is crucial for enhancing INP scores. Employ techniques like code splitting, asynchronous loading, debouncing and throttling, optimizing event handlers, minimizing long tasks, and leveraging modern browser APIs to ensure rapid, responsive user interactions.